Largest solar thermal power stations (CSP) list
Largest operational solar thermal power stations list. Commercial concentrating solar power (CSP) plants, also called "solar thermal power stations".
List.solar has compiled the global rating of top CSP plants sorted by capacity. Only megawatt-scale systems are included in the list (50MW+). Most of the winning stations use parabolic trough technology. Solar power tower systems rank second. Dish Stirling technology is not currently used in utility-scale CSP stations.
|Electrical capacity (MW)||Name||Country||Location||Developer||Technology type||Storage hours||Notes|
|510||Ouarzazate Solar Power Station||Morocco||map||TSK-Acciona-Sener||Parabolic trough and solar power tower (Phase 3)||3 / 7 / 7.5||160 MW Phase 1 with 3 hours heat storage. 200 MW phase 2 with 7 hours heat storage is online from January 2018. 150 MW (Phase 3) with 7.5 hours storage is online from November 2018|
|392||Ivanpah Solar Power Facility||USA||map||BrightSource Energy, Bechtel||Solar power towe||Operational since February 2014. Located southwest of Las Vegas.|
|310||Solar Energy Generating Systems (SEGS)||USA||map||Luz Industries||Parabolic trough||Collection of 9 units 1984-1990. Originally 354 MW. First two units (44 MW out of total 354 MW) were decommissioned after 30 years and replaced by solar PV.|
|280||Mojave Solar Project||USA||map||Abengoa Solar||Parabolic trough||Completed December 2014. Gross capacity of 280 MW corresponds to net capacity of 250 MW|
|280||Solana Generating Station||USA||map||Abengoa Solar||Parabolic trough||Completed in October 2013, with 6 hours thermal energy storage|
|280||Genesis Solar Energy Project||USA||map||NextEra Energy Resources||Parabolic trough||Online April 24, 2014|
|200||Solaben Solar Power Station||Spain||map||Abener/Teyma||Parabolic trough||Solaben 3 completed June 2012. Solaben 2 completed October 2012. Solaben 1 and 6 completed September 2013.|
|150||Solnova Solar Power Station||Spain||map||Abengoa Solar||Parabolic trough||Solnova 1 completed May 2010. Solnova 3 completed May 2010. Solnova 4 completed August 2010.|
|150||Andasol solar power station||Spain||map||Solar Millennium (25%), ACS Cobra (75%)||Parabolic trough||7.5||Completed: Andasol 1 (2008), Andasol 2 (2009), Andasol 3 (2011). Each equipped with a 7.5 hour thermal energy storage.|
|150||Extresol Solar Power Station||Spain||map||ACS/Cobra Group||Parabolic trough||7.5||Completed: Extresol 1 and 2 (2010), Extresol 3 (2012). Each equipped with a 7.5-hour thermal energy storage.|
|125||Crescent Dunes Solar Energy Project||USA||map||SolarReserve||Solar power tower||10||with 10h heat storage; commercial operation began September 2015|
|125||Dhursar||India||map||Rajasthan Sun Technique Energy||fresnel reflector||Completed November 2014, referred as 125 MW is some sources|
|121||Ashalim Power Station (Negev Energy)||Israel||map||BrightSource Energy, General Electric||Parabolic trough||4.5||4.5h heat storage. Completed August 2019 and located in Negev desert|
|121||Megalim Power Station (Negev Energy)||Israel||map||Megalim Solar Power Ltd||Solar power tower||Completed April 2019 and located in Negev desert|
|100||Kathu Solar Park||South Africa||map||ENGIE||Parabolic trough||4.5||Completed February 2018, With 4.5h heat storage|
|100||KaXu Solar One||South Africa||map||Abengoa Solar||Parabolic trough||2.5||With 2.5h heat storage|
|100||Xina Solar One||South Africa||map||Abengoa Solar||Parabolic trough||5.5||Commissioned in September 2017 with 5.5h heat storage.|
|100||Manchasol Power Station||Spain||map||ACS/Cobra Group||Parabolic trough||7.5||Manchasol 1 and 2 completed in 2011, each with 7.5h heat storage|
|100||Valle Solar Power Station||Spain||map||SENER||Parabolic trough||7.5||Completed December 2011, with 7.5h heat storage|
|100||Helioenergy Solar Power Station||Spain||map||Abengoa Solar, EON||Parabolic trough||Helioenergy 1 completed September 2011. Helioenergy 2 completed January 2012.|
|100||Aste Solar Power Station||Spain||map||Elecnor/Aries/ABM AMRO||Parabolic trough||Aste 1A Completed January 2012, with 8h heat storage. Aste 1B Completed January 2012, with 8h heat storage.|
|100||Solacor Solar Power Station||Spain||map||Abengoa Solar, JGC||Parabolic trough||Solacor 1 completed February 2012. Solacor 2 completed March 2012.|
|100||Helios Solar Power Station||Spain||map||Helios I Hyperion Energy Investments, Helios II Hyperion Energy Investments||Parabolic trough||Helios 1 completed May 2012. Helios 2 completed August 2012.|
|100||Shams solar power station||United Arab Emirates||map||Shams Power Company (Masdar, Total, Abengoa Solar)||Parabolic trough||Shams 1 completed March 2013|
|100||Termosol Solar Power Station||Spain||map||NextEra, FPL||Parabolic trough||Both Termosol 1 and 2 completed in 2013.|
|100||Palma del Río I & II||Spain||map||Acciona Energía||Parabolic trough||Palma del Rio 2 completed December 2010. Palma del Rio 1 completed July 2011.|
|100||Ilanga 1||South Africa||map||SENER, Emvelo and Cobra||Parabolic trough||5||With 5h heat storage. Operational since 2018|
|100||Shouhang Dunhuang||China||map||Beijing Shouhang IHW||Solar power tower||7.5||With 7.5h heat storage. Operational since end of December 2018|
|75||Martin Next Generation Solar Energy Center||USA||map||Florida Power & Light Company||SCC with parabolic trough||Completed December 2010|
|75||Nevada Solar One||USA||map||Acciona Solar Power||Parabolic trough||Operational since 2007|
|50||Guzmán||Spain||map||FCC Energy||Parabolic trough||Completed July 2012|
|50||Khi Solar One||South Africa||map||Abengoa Solar - IDC||Solar power tower||2||Completed Feb 2016. With 2h heat storage.|
|50||Bokpoort||South Africa||map||ACWA Power, Acciona, SENER and TSK and South Africa’s Crowie||Parabolic trough||9||With 9h heat storage|
|50||Puertollano Solar Thermal Power Plant||Spain||map||Iberdrola Renovables Castilla-La Mancha||Parabolic trough||Completed May 2009|
|50||Alvarado I||Spain||map||Acciona Energy||Parabolic trough||Completed July 2009|
|50||La Florida||Spain||map||Renovables SAMCA||Parabolic trough||7.5||Completed July 2010|
|50||Arenales PS||Spain||map||RREF/OHL||Parabolic trough||7||Start production date november 2013|
|50||Casablanca||Spain||map||ACS - COBRA group||Parabolic trough||7.5||Land area 200 hectares.|
|50||Majadas de Tiétar||Spain||map||Acciona Energía||Parabolic trough||Completed August 2010|
|50||La Dehesa||Spain||map||Renovables SAMCA||Parabolic trough||7.5||Completed November 2010|
|50||Lebrija-1||Spain||map||Solucia Renovables 1, S.L.||Parabolic trough||Completed July 2011|
|50||Astexol 2||Spain||map||Elecnor/Aries/ABM AMRO||Parabolic trough||7.5||Completed November 2011, with 7.5h thermal energy storage|
|50||Morón||Spain||map||Ibereólica Solar||Parabolic trough||Completed May 2012|
|50||La Africana||Spain||map||Ortiz/TSK/Magtel||Parabolic trough||7.5||Completed July 2012, with 7.5h thermal energy storage|
|50||Olivenza 1||Spain||map||Ibereólica Solar||Parabolic trough||Completed July 2012|
|50||Orellana||Spain||map||Acciona||Parabolic trough||Completed August 2012|
|50||Godawari Green Energy Limited||India||map||Godawari Green Energy Limited||Parabolic trough||Land Area 150 hectares|
|50||Enerstar Villena Power Plant||Spain||map||FCC Energy||Parabolic trough||Completed 2013|
|50||Megha Solar Plant||India||map||Megha Engineering and Infrastructure||Parabolic trough||Completed 2014|
|50||Delingha Solar Plant||China||map||CGN Delingha Solar Energy||Parabolic trough||9||Completed July 2018 with 9 hours of thermal energy storage|
|50||Supcon Solar Delingha||China||map||SUPCON||Solar power tower||7||Completed December 2018|
|50||Shagaya CSP||Kuwait||map||TSK||Parabolic trough||10||Commercial operation started in February 2019, 10 hours thermal storage|
|50||Waad Al Shamal ISCC Plant||Saudi Arabia||map||General Electric||ISCC with parabolic trough||Commercial operation started in 2018, 1,390 MW plant with 50 MW solar|
|50||Qinghai Gonghe CSP||China||map||Supcon Solar||Power tower||6||With 6 h heat storage.|
Concentrating solar, or solar thermal power plants, utilize systems of mirror or lenses and trackers to focus a huge volume of sunlight onto a receiver and generate heat energy. The thermal energy is either harnessed for industrial process heating or for creating steam, which turns a turbogenerator, producing electricity.
A CSP station can be supplemented with a storage system, which allows generating electrical power even at night or in dull weather.
There are four key groups of solar thermal systems, each of them having different variations and configurations. There is no single opinion as to which technology is optimal, all of them have their own pros and cons.
- Parabolic trough is the oldest and best-developed CSP tech. The solar field consists of parallel rows of parabolically curved solar collectors comprised of reflectors, which concentrate sunlight onto a receiver tube filled with working fluid. The latter is heated to considerable temperatures and produces steam, the heat of which is utilized for electricity making. The reflectors are installed on single-axis trackers, going after the sun to keep its radiation always concentrated on a receiver pipe, which runs right above the trough-shaped mirror.
- Power tower tech is not so developed as a parabolic trough, but it is a fast-developing and promising system. The heat-transfer fluids in such systems reach temps much higher than in parabolic troughs, and consequently they provide higher conversion efficiency. The technology is comprised of a tall tower with a receiver above, surrounded with heliostats – reflectors that track the sun’s position along 2 axes and focus solar irradiance onto a receiver. The working fluid gets heated, which results in formation of steam running a power generator. Energy storage systems are often integrated into power towers to provide uninterrupted electricity generation.
- Linear Fresnel technology is much similar to a parabolic trough. The difference is in the form of mirrors used. Instead of curved reflectors, Fresnel system contains parallel rows of strip-shaped flat mirrors. They also follow the sun’s rays to concentrate them onto a system of receiver pipes filled with heat transfer fluid. The concentrating surface of flat reflectors is larger compared to parabolically curved mirrors and they are less expensive. Like parabolic troughs and solar power towers, Fresnel projects can also be integrated with energy storage.
- Parabolic dish systems are made of a dish-shaped concentrator that focuses solar energy onto a receiver installed at a focal point. The reflector is installed on a double-axis tracking system. Unlike other CSP technologies where heat energy is converted into electrical power by a turbogenerator, in most dish systems steam is used to drive an engine (commonly Stirling engine). Today, dish-engine solutions are rarely used for commercial power production. A parabolic dish may be heated to extremely high temperature, which is a promising option for making a solar fuel.